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In a science-dependent world, most people understand that there are countless laboratories around the globe that are busy each day generating the products and information that we all demand.

But inside the walls of these laboratories, the work being done is very complex. New treatments that are being developed require far more than just an assortment of test tubes bubbling in a brightly-lit room lined with microscopes and clipboards. There are extensive governmental regulations, complex procedural requirements, and significant documentation processes that must be followed to the letter in order to assure safety, efficacy, and purity of the work being done.

The result of the complexity of these processes is that a number of firms exist in order to attend to the specialized requirements of various laboratory types. The work they do often supplants the efforts of in-house staff, freeing up resources to make the operation more economical.

One of the common tasks handled by outside vendors storage and transport. This process alone is complex enough to build its own industry. The types of biological samples handled by Pacific BioStorage require following very specific steps. These include comprehensive chain-of-custody documentation, proper packing methods, safe transport, and safe storage. Here are just a few of the things that go into each of these steps:


The integrity of sample identification is paramount. Whatever the purpose of the blood or tissue being stored, it must be absolutely assured to have originated where its documentation suggests. Any aberration from this standard can potentially destroy the entire process.

Consider the evidence gathered by police at the scene of a crime. If blood or DNA samples from two different murder weapons are interchanged, two killers could potentially go free. There could even be repercussions against the law enforcement personnel who collected the specimens after the implication of planted evidence.

The same is true with medical samples. If a new procedure has been attempted and the patient’s bloodwork must be stored for an extensive period, a serious statistical anomaly could take place if the identification is lost, jeopardizing years’ worth of work.

Proper Packing & Safe Transport

Mistakes in packing can cause three main problems. The first is spoilage. Improper insulation could cause temperatures to become too high or too low in the specimen, damaging important components.

The next is integrity. Poor packing of samples could cause their individual containers to leak, allowing various materials to intermingle and become contaminated.

The final problem is public health. Because so many biological samples are biohazards, it is critically important that they be fully contained inside impermeable containers at all times, so that the contents don’t leak into water, food, soil, or air.

Expert firms must be utilized to get these samples properly secured for their relocation or long-term storage.

Safe Storage

The key factors in safe storage of biological samples are security and redundancy. Samples must be secured with more than just a lock and key. There must be strict protocols in place for who can access which samples. Additionally, there will probably be documentation of who has had access to what specimens at any given time.

Redundancy is the other important area. A cooling system, power source, or tracking system cannot be one-dimensional. There must be provisions in place for power failures, equipment malfunctions, and maintenance downtime. Without properly maintaining the correct temperature, light, and humidity conditions, samples can be compromised.

The average person understands that scientific laboratories involve high-level chemistry and biology. But the process of just handling the samples involved in the work is so complex that it’s an industry of its own.


By Dr. Mandy Grimshaw

1) Your mouth is often thought of as an island separate from other parts of the body with not much attention given to it. But, in reality, the mouth is the gateway to the body. Teeth and gums are part of your body and an unhealthy or diseased mouth has a direct link to heart disease, stroke, diabetes, Alzheimer’s and COPD. Ask your dental professional to screen you and your family members for periodontal disease. It is a chronic disease affecting more than 80% of the adult population, contagious and transmissible too! Think of your visit with your hygienist as one of the most important health checkups you can have. It is more than “just a cleaning.” It should include a blood pressure check, a health history review, an oral cancer screening, a periodontal screening, a bite screening and restorative screening.

2) Headaches, neckaches, backache, shoulder pain and tingling in fingers tips may be due to a bad bite. It is not normal to clench or grind your teeth. A dentist trained in neuromuscular dentistry can evaluate your bite and symptoms to diagnose and offer treatment for your pain.

3) Modern dentistry does not hurt. Comfort options that are available while in the dental chair are NuCalm, IV and Oral Sedation, Nitrous Oxide, noise cancelling headphones, and warm blankets.

4) Sleep disorders such as Obstructive Sleep Apnea & Snoring can be treated by a dentist trained in sleep dentistry. Candidates wear an oral appliance, similar to a mouth guard, instead of, or in conjunction with a CPAP to lower the pressure settings.

Dr. Mandy Grimshaw has been practicing leading-edge dentistry since 2005. After graduating from the University of North Carolina Dental School, she joined her father, Dr. David Kuhn in his private practice in Aberdeen, North Carolina.

How Sleep, Relaxation, and Meditation Affect Your Beauty Inside and Out (Infographic)

A lack of sleep is sucking a day of positive productivity each week from nearly half of all Americans. According to a 2014 study conducted by the National Sleep Foundation, “45 percent of Americans say that poor or insufficient sleep affected their daily activities at least once in the past seven days.”

Sleep is vital to the body.  Studies have shown that motor skill abilities sharpen after a night of good sleep. However, a deprivation of sleep causes the brain to lack focus and concentration and also comprises the immune system, putting the body at risk for illness.

Sleep also affects growth. Deep sleep induces the pituitary gland to release growth hormones in children, teens and young adults. Kids do, in fact, grow overnight…and sleep encourages that growth.

Sleep duration affects the body’s internal clockwork, but stress—which can lead to a night of less sleep—also takes a nasty toll on physical appearance. Beauty may only be skin deep, but skin under great stress results in a reflection worthy of a good long weep.

Stress isn’t sexy and it definitely isn’t pretty. Failure to clock enough shut eye from a night awake stressing over daily problems can leave the face prone to acne, wrinkles and sagginess. Eyes become puffy. And, of course, dark circles appear under the eyes adding to the droopy appearance.

The body needs sleep and daily relaxation to lower stress levels and help encourage healing and overall wellness. Americans also need more sleep and times of meditative relaxation to promote good mental and emotional health, because quiet relaxation helps center the mind and calm the mood.

Sleep and relaxation techniques also help us look good. The body does, in fact, need beauty rest…and lots of it! Most adults between the ages of 18 to 64 need on average seven to nine hours of sleep each night.

While most adults think that lost sleep during the week can be cashed in by sleeping late on the weekend, the reality is that lost sleep is irreplaceable.  The body needs the same amount of sleep each night, so binge sleeping during Saturday morning doesn’t make up for the productivity that was lost on a Tuesday night.

Be good to the body. Treat it to a long restful slumber every night and extra moments of relaxation during days of high stress. Enjoy the healthful benefits that sleep and relaxation techniques provide the body, and revel in the beautiful returns that rest provides the reflection in the morning mirror.

How Sleep, Relaxation, and Meditation Affect Your Beauty Inside and Out

Medical coding is the procedure in which coders allocate numerical codes to healthcare processes and diagnoses to bill insurance firms for reimbursement claim.

For coding and medical billing, there are three major coding manuals that contain all codes that a coder can add for reimbursement claim. They include:

ICD-9: This diagnosis code is relevant to the international classification of medical diseases with 9th revision.

CPT: It is named as current procedural terminology that refers to the services and procedures performed on patients for treatment.

HCPCS: It is known as healthcare common procedural coding system that refers miscellaneous supplies and drug supplied to the patients in the setting of healthcare mode.

Medical coders combine three coding sets on the claim of insurance and refer them to insurance firms for reimbursement. Here Is a detail what they make use of them:

ICD-9 diagnosis codes are useful in explaining to the insurance firm why the patient needs medical treatment.

CPT tells the insurance firm what processes were applied to the treatment of the patient.

HCPCS codes are used for the representation of other miscellaneous supplied or services given to patients on the day of their arrival.

A medical provider

He or she bills for HCPCS and CPT codes because they are representative of supplies and actual services provided to the patient.

Each medical code provided an individual charge is reimbursed separately by the insurance firm. It means that provider does not bill for, and insurer firm will not make payment for diagnosis codes.

Because of medical coding nature, it is simple to code for the wrong process accidently. It is known as abuse or fraud and is a serious offence that requires punishment by fines and sending jail. Due to this, it is vital for coders to produce a solid protection against coding abuse and fraud.

One major safeguard is the understanding of different medical terminology, diagnosis, and procedure description in a better way. This understanding gives you confidence that correct codes are sent, and the patient is having the right treatment.

There is a need for good education in proper coding and medical terminology to support the coding process quickly and permits coders to tackle more clients.

Normally, physicians code their claims, but coders should check the medical codes to ensure that everything is billed correctly. In settings, medical coders need the translation of patient charts into codes.

In summary, medical codes help the coder and the doctor to report the right information. The provider will market the correct coding information on the bill and coders enter it into computer software, named as practice management application. This software allows the biller to send their claims to the insurer firms.  In every condition, medical coders are responsible for the correct codes entering based on the patient health care services. There is good news for coders because they are different job opportunities for them with a medical coding knowledge. Sometimes, these coders play the role of medical billers. In their dual role, they file the insurance claim of the patients, assign codes and start the process of billing. Look for medical billing service website to get more information about billing and coding process.